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Standard Test Methods for Loss on Ignition (LOI) of Solid Combustion ResiduesTranslate name
STANDARD published on 1.10.2021
Designation standards: ASTM D7348-21
Publication date standards: 1.10.2021
The number of pages: 7
Approximate weight : 21 g (0.05 lbs)
Country: American technical standard
Category: Technical standards ASTM
ash, combustion residues, loss on ignition, LOI, macro thermogravimetric analysis, macro TGA,, ICS Number Code 27.020 (Internal combustion engines)
|Significance and Use|
5.1LOI refers to the mass loss of a combustion residue whenever it is heated in an air or oxygen atmosphere to high temperatures. In the cement industry, use of the term LOI normally refers to a mass loss in a sample heated to 950C. To combustion engineers, the term LOI normally refers to mass losses in samples heated to temperatures normally less than 950C. These test methods establish a procedure for determining LOI values for combustion residues heated to 750C or 950C. LOI values from these test methods can be used by industries that utilize combustion residues in various processes and products.
5.2If the solid combustion residue is heated to estimate the combustible or unburned carbon in the sample, it has been shown that LOI and estimation of unburned carbon do not necessarily agree well with each other and that LOI should not be used as an estimate of unburned carbon in all combustion residues. Direct determination of unburned (combustible) carbon can be carried out using Test Method .
5.3If the solid combustion residue is heated to prepare an ash for the determination of the mass fractions of major and minor elements, use the heating procedure described in Test Methods , , and , or the procedures for the 750C LOI determination described in these test methods (Method A).
5.4If the solid combustion residue is heated to prepare an ash for the determination of the mass fractions of trace elements, use the heating procedure described in Test Methods and .
Note 1:Combustion residues produced in furnace operations or other combustion systems can differ from the ash yield, as determined in Test Methods and , because combustion conditions influence the chemistry and amount of ash. Combustion causes an expulsion of all water, the loss of carbon dioxide from carbonates, the conversion of metal sulfides into metal oxides, metal sulfates and sulfur oxides, and other chemical reactions. Likewise, the ash obtained after igniting combustion residues can differ in composition and amount from Test Methods and ash yields because of different heating procedures, combustion of unburned carbon, and decomposition of materials in the residue.
1.1These test methods cover the determination of the mass loss from solid combustion residues upon heating in an air or oxygen atmosphere to a prescribed temperature. The mass loss can be due to the loss of moisture, carbon, sulfur, and so forth, from the decomposition or combustion of the residue.
1.2UnitsThe values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses after SI units are provided for information only and are not considered standard.
1.3This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
1.4This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.
|2. Referenced Documents|
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