We need your consent to use the individual data so that you can see information about your interests, among other things. Click "OK" to give your consent.
Standard Test Methods for Flexural Properties of Unreinforced and Reinforced Plastics and Electrical Insulating Materials
Translate name
STANDARD published on 1.7.2017
Designation standards: ASTM D79017
Publication date standards: 1.7.2017
SKU: NS688319
The number of pages: 12
Approximate weight : 36 g (0.08 lbs)
Country: American technical standard
Category: Technical standards ASTM
Keywords:
flexural properties, plastics, stiffness, strength,, ICS Number Code 29.035.20 (Plastic and rubber insulating materials)
Significance and Use  
5.1 Flexural properties as determined by this test method are especially useful for quality control and specification purposes. They include: 5.1.1 Flexural Stress (σ_{f})—When a homogeneous elastic material is tested in flexure as a simple beam supported at two points and loaded at the midpoint, the maximum stress in the outer surface of the test specimen occurs at the midpoint. Flexural stress is calculated for any point on the loaddeflection curve using equation (Eq 3) in Section 12 (see Notes 5 and 6). Note 5: Eq 3 applies
strictly to materials for which stress is linearly proportional to
strain up to the point of rupture and for which the strains are
small. Since this is not always the case, a slight error will be
introduced if Eq 3 is used to
calculate stress for materials that are not true Hookean materials.
The equation is valid for obtaining comparison data and for
specification purposes, but only up to a maximum fiber strain of 5
% in the outer surface of the test specimen for specimens tested by
the procedures described herein.
Note 6: When testing highly orthotropic laminates, the maximum
stress may not always occur in the outer surface of the test
specimen.5.1.2 Flexural Stress for Beams Tested at Large
Support Spans (σ_{f})—If support
spantodepth ratios greater than 16 to 1 are used such that
deflections in excess of 10 % of the support span occur, the stress
in the outer surface of the specimen for a simple beam is
reasonably approximated using equation (Eq 4) in 12.3 (see Note 7).
Note 7: When large support spantodepth ratios are used,
significant end forces are developed at the support noses which
will affect the moment in a simple supported beam. Eq 4 includes additional terms that are
an approximate correction factor for the influence of these end
forces in large support spantodepth ratio beams where relatively
large deflections exist.
5.1.3 Flexural Strength (σ_{fM})—Maximum flexural stress sustained by the test specimen (see Note 6) during a bending test. It is calculated according to Eq 3 or Eq 4. Some materials that do not break at strains of up to 5 % give a load deflection curve that shows a point at which the load does not increase with an increase in strain, that is, a yield point (Fig. 1, Curve b), Y. The flexural strength is calculated for these materials by letting P (in Eq 3 or Eq 4) equal this point, FIG. 1 Typical Curves of Flexural Stress (σ_{f}) Versus Flexural Strain (ε_{Note 1: Curve a: Specimen that breaks before yielding. Curve b: Specimen that yields and then breaks before the 5 % strain limit. Curve c: Specimen that neither yields nor breaks before the 5 % strain limit.} 5.1.4 Flexural Offset Yield Strength—Offset yield strength is the stress at which the stressstrain curve deviates by a given strain (offset) from the tangent to the initial straight line portion of the stressstrain curve. The value of the offset must be given whenever this property is calculated. Note 8: Flexural Offset Yield Strength may differ from
flexural strength defined in 5.1.3. Both methods of calculation are
described in the annex to Test Method D638.
5.1.5 Flexural Stress at Break (σ_{fB})—Flexural stress at break of the test specimen during a bending test. It is calculated according to Eq 3 or Eq 4. Some materials give a load deflection curve that shows a break point, B, without a yield point (Fig. 1, Curve a) in which case σ_{5.1.6 Stress at a Given Strain—The stress in the outer surface of a test specimen at a given strain is calculated in accordance with Eq 3 or Eq 4 by letting 5.1.7 Flexural Strain, ɛf—Nominal fractional change in the length of an element of the outer surface of the test specimen at midspan, where the maximum strain occurs. Flexural strain is calculated for any deflection using Eq 5 in 12.4.} 5.1.8 Modulus of Elasticity: 5.1.8.1 Tangent Modulus of Elasticity—The tangent modulus of elasticity, often called the “modulus of elasticity,” is the ratio, within the elastic limit, of stress to corresponding strain. It is calculated by drawing a tangent to the steepest initial straightline portion of the loaddeflection curve and using Eq 6 in 12.5.1 (for highly anisotropic composites, see Note 9). Note 9: Shear deflections can seriously reduce the apparent
modulus of highly anisotropic composites when they are tested at
low spantodepth ratios.4
For this reason, a spantodepth ratio of 60 to 1 is recommended
for flexural modulus determinations on these composites. Flexural
strength should be determined on a separate set of replicate
specimens at a lower spantodepth ratio that induces tensile
failure in the outer fibers of the beam along its lower face. Since
the flexural modulus of highly anisotropic laminates is a critical
function of plystacking sequence, it will not necessarily
correlate with tensile modulus, which is not stackingsequence
dependent.
5.1.8.2 Secant Modulus—The secant modulus is the ratio of stress to corresponding strain at any selected point on the stressstrain curve, that is, the slope of the straight line that joins the origin and a selected point on the actual stressstrain curve. It shall be expressed in megapascals (pounds per square inch). The selected point is chosen at a prespecified stress or strain in accordance with the appropriate material specification or by customer contract. It is calculated in accordance with Eq 6 by letting m equal the slope of the secant to the loaddeflection curve. The chosen stress or strain point used for the determination of the secant shall be reported. 5.1.8.3 Chord Modulus (E_{f})—The chord modulus is calculated from two discrete points on the load deflection curve. The selected points are to be chosen at two prespecified stress or strain points in accordance with the appropriate material specification or by customer contract. The chosen stress or strain points used for the determination of the chord modulus shall be reported. Calculate the chord modulus, E_{f} using Eq 7 in 12.5.2. 5.2 Experience has shown that flexural properties vary with specimen depth, temperature, atmospheric conditions, and strain rate as specified in Procedures A and B. 5.3 Before proceeding with these test methods, refer to the ASTM specification of the material being tested. Any test specimen preparation, conditioning, dimensions, or testing parameters, or combination thereof, covered in the ASTM material specification shall take precedence over those mentioned in these test methods. Table 1 in Classification System D4000 lists the ASTM material specifications that currently exist for plastics. 

1. Scope  
1.1 These test methods are used to determine the flexural properties of unreinforced and reinforced plastics, including high modulus composites and electrical insulating materials utilizing a threepoint loading system to apply a load to a simply supported beam (specimen). The method is generally applicable to both rigid and semirigid materials, but flexural strength cannot be determined for those materials that do not break or yield in the outer surface of the test specimen within the 5.0 % strain limit. 1.2 Test specimens of rectangular cross section are injection molded or, cut from molded or extruded sheets or plates, or cut from molded or extruded shapes. Specimens must be solid and uniformly rectangular. The specimen rests on two supports and is loaded by means of a loading nose midway between the supports. 1.3 Measure deflection in one of two ways; using crosshead position or a deflectometer. Please note that studies have shown that deflection data obtained with a deflectometer will differ from data obtained using crosshead position. The method of deflection measurement shall be reported. Note 1: Requirements for quality control in production
environments are usually met by measuring deflection using
crosshead position. However, more accurate measurement may be
obtained by using an deflection indicator such as a
deflectometer.
Note 2: Materials that do not rupture by the maximum strain
allowed under this test method may be more suited to a 4point bend
test. The basic difference between the two test methods is in the
location of the maximum bending moment and maximum axial fiber
stresses. The maximum axial fiber stresses occur on a line under
the loading nose in 3point bending and over the area between the
loading noses in 4point bending. A fourpoint loading system
method can be found in Test Method D6272.
1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values provided in parentheses are for information only. 1.5 The text of this standard references notes and footnotes that provide explanatory material. These notes and footnotes (excluding those in tables and figures) shall not be considered as requirements of the standard. 1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. Note 3: This standard and ISO 178 address the same subject
matter, but differ in technical content.
1.7 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee. 

2. Referenced Documents  

Do you want to make sure you use only the valid technical standards?
We can offer you a solution which will provide you a monthly overview concerning the updating of standards which you use.
Would you like to know more? Look at this page.
Latest update: 20240526 (Number of items: 2 904 849)
© Copyright 2024 NORMSERVIS s.r.o.