Standard Test Methods for Specific Gravity of Soil Solids by Water Pycnometer
STANDARD published on 1.5.2014
Designation standards: ASTM D854-14
Publication date standards: 1.5.2014
The number of pages: 8
Approximate weight : 24 g (0.05 lbs)
Country: American technical standard
Category: Technical standards ASTM
These test methods cover the determination of the specific gravity of soil solids passing a sieve by means of a water pycnometer. Soil solids for these test methods do not include solids which can be altered by these methods, contaminated with a substance that prohibits the use of these methods, or are highly organic soil solids, such as fibrous matter which floats in water. Procedures for moist specimens such as organic soils, highly plastic fine grained soils, tropical soils, and soils containing halloysite and oven-dry specimens are provided. The apparatus is comprised of water pycnometer which shall be a stoppered flask, stoppered iodine flask, or volumetric flask; balance; drying oven; thermometer; dessicator; a system for entrapped air removal which shall be a hot plate or Bunsen burner or a vacuum pump or water aspirator; insulated container; non-corrosive smooth surface funnel; pycnometer filling tube with lateral vents; sieve; and blender with mixing blades. The specific gravity of the soil solids at the test temperature shall be calculated from the density of the soil solids and the density of water at the test temperature or from the mass of the oven dry soil solids; mass of pycnometer, water, and soil solids at the test temperature; and mass of the pycnometer and water at the test temperature. Precision and bias shall be determined to judge for the acceptability of the test results.
ICS Number Code 93.020 (Earth works. Excavations. Foundation construction. Underground works)
|Significance and Use|
4.1 The specific gravity of a soil solids is used in calculating the phase relationships of soils, such as void ratio and degree of saturation.
4.1.1 The specific gravity of soil solids is used to calculate the density of the soil solids. This is done by multiplying its specific gravity by the density of water (at proper temperature).
4.2 The term soil solids is typically assumed to mean naturally occurring mineral particles or soil like particles that are not readily soluble in water. Therefore, the specific gravity of soil solids containing extraneous matter, such as cement, lime, and the like, water-soluble matter, such as sodium chloride, and soils containing matter with a specific gravity less than one, typically require special treatment (see Note 1) or a qualified definition of their specific gravity.
4.3 The balances, pycnometer sizes, and specimen masses are established to obtain test results with three significant digits.
1.1 These test methods cover the determination of the specific gravity of soil solids that pass the 4.75-mm (No. 4) sieve, by means of a water pycnometer. When the soil contains particles larger than the 4.75-mm sieve, Test Method C127 shall be used for the soil solids retained on the 4.75-mm sieve and these test methods shall be used for the soil solids passing the 4.75-mm sieve.
1.1.1 Soil solids for these test methods do not include solids which can be altered by these methods, contaminated with a substance that prohibits the use of these methods, or are highly organic soil solids, such as fibrous matter which floats in water.
1.2 Two methods for performing the specific gravity are provided. The method to be used shall be specified by the requesting authority, except when testing the types of soils listed in 1.2.1
1.2.1 Method A—Procedure for Moist Specimens, described in 1.2.2 Method B—Procedure for Oven-Dry Specimens, described in 1.3 All observed and calculated values shall conform to the guidelines for significant digits and rounding established in Practice D6026.
1.3.1 The procedures used to specify how data are collected/recorded and calculated in this standard are regarded as the industry standard. In addition, they are representative of the significant digits that generally should be retained. The procedures used do not consider material variation, purpose for obtaining the data, special purpose studies, or any considerations for the user's objectives; and it is common practice to increase or reduce significant digits of reported data to be commensurate with these considerations. It is beyond the scope of these test methods to consider significant digits used in analysis methods for engineering design.
1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. The inch-pound units given in parentheses are mathematical conversions which are provided for information purposes only and are not considered standard.
1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
|2. Referenced Documents|
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