Standard Test Method for Measuring the Toxicity of Sediment-Associated Contaminants with Estuarine and Marine Invertebrates
STANDARD published on 1.10.2014
Designation standards: ASTM E1367-03(2014)
Publication date standards: 1.10.2014
The number of pages: 62
Approximate weight : 186 g (0.41 lbs)
Country: American technical standard
Category: Technical standards ASTM
Ampelisca abdita, amphipod, bioavailability, chronic, Eohaustorius estuarius, estuarine, invertebrates, Leptocheirus plumulosus, marine, Rhepoxynius abronius, sediment, toxicity,, ICS Number Code 07.060 (Geology. Meteorology. Hydrology)
|Significance and Use|
5.1.1 Sediment provides habitat for many aquatic organisms and is a major repository for many of the more persistent chemicals that are introduced into surface waters. In the aquatic environment, most anthropogenic chemicals and waste materials including toxic organic and inorganic chemicals eventually accumulate in sediment. Mounting evidences exists of environmental degradation in areas where USEPA Water Quality Criteria (WQC; Stephan et al.5.1.2 The objective of a sediment test is to determine whether chemicals in sediment are harmful to or are bioaccumulated by benthic organisms. The tests can be used to measure interactive toxic effects of complex chemical mixtures in sediment. Furthermore, knowledge of specific pathways of interactions among sediments and test organisms is not necessary to conduct the tests Kemp et al. 1988, 5.1.3 A variety of methods have been developed for assessing the toxicity of chemicals in sediments using amphipods, midges, polychaetes, oligochaetes, mayflies, or cladocerans (Test Method , Guide , Guide ; , ; USEPA, 2000 (, EPA 1994b, )(, Environment Canada 1997a, )18.104.22.168 The decision to conduct short-term or long-term toxicity tests depends on the goal of the assessment. In some instances, sufficient information may be gained by measuring sublethal endpoints in 10-day tests. In other instances, the 10-day tests could be used to screen samples for toxicity before long-term tests are conducted. While the long-term tests are needed to determine direct effects on reproduction, measurement of growth in these toxicity tests may serve as an indirect estimate of reproductive effects of contaminants associated with sediments ( ).
22.214.171.124 Use of sublethal endpoints for assessment of contaminant risk is not unique to toxicity testing with sediments. Numerous regulatory programs require the use of sublethal endpoints in the decision-making process (Pittinger and Adams, 1997, 5.1.4 Results of toxicity tests on sediments spiked at different concentrations of chemicals can be used to establish cause and effect relationships between chemicals and biological responses. Results of toxicity tests with test materials spiked into sediments at different concentrations may be reported in terms of an LC50 (median lethal concentration), an EC50 (median effect concentration), an IC50 (inhibition concentration), or as a NOEC (no observed effect concentration) or LOEC (lowest observed effect concentration). However, spiked sediment may not be representative of chemicals associated with sediment in the field. Mixing time Stemmer et al. 1990b, 5.1.5 Evaluating effect concentrations for chemicals in sediment requires knowledge of factors controlling their bioavailability. Similar concentrations of a chemical in units of mass of chemical per mass of sediment dry weight often exhibit a range in toxicity in different sediments Di Toro et al. 1990, 5.1.6 Field surveys can be designed to provide either a qualitative reconnaissance of the distribution of sediment contamination or a quantitative statistical comparison of contamination among sites.
5.1.7 Surveys of sediment toxicity are usually part of more comprehensive analyses of biological, chemical, geological, and hydrographic data. Statistical correlations may be improved and sampling costs may be reduced if subsamples are taken simultaneously for sediment tests, chemical analyses, and benthic community structure.
5.1.8 lists several approaches the USEPA has considered for the assessment of sediment quality USEPA, 1992, 5.2 Regulatory Applications—Test Method provides information on the regulatory applications of sediment toxicity tests.
5.3 Performance-based Criteria:
5.3.1 The USEPA Environmental Monitoring Management Council (EMMC) recommended the use of performance-based methods in developing standards, (Williams, 1993 (. Performance-based methods were defined by EMMC as a monitoring approach which permits the use of appropriate methods that meet preestablished demonstrated performance standards ( ) ).
5.3.2 The USEPA Office of Water, Office of Science and Technology, and Office of Research and Development held a workshop to provide an opportunity for experts in the field of sediment toxicology and staff from the USEPA Regional and Headquarters Program offices to discuss the development of standard freshwater, estuarine, and marine sediment testing procedures (USEPA, 1992a, 1994a 5.3.3 This standard recommends the use of performance-based criteria to allow each laboratory to optimize culture methods and minimize effects of test organism health on the reliability and comparability of test results. See and for a listing of performance criteria for culturing or testing.
1.1 This test method covers procedures for testing estuarine or marine organisms in the laboratory to evaluate the toxicity of contaminants associated with whole sediments. Sediments may be collected from the field or spiked with compounds in the laboratory. General guidance is presented in Sections for conducting sediment toxicity tests with estuarine or marine amphipods. Specific guidance for conducting 10-d sediment toxicity tests with estuarine or marine amphipods is outlined in and specific guidance for conducting 28-d sediment toxicity tests with Leptocheirus plumulosus is outlined in .
1.2 Procedures are described for testing estuarine or marine amphipod crustaceans in 10-d laboratory exposures to evaluate the toxicity of contaminants associated with whole sediments ( ; USEPA 1994a 1.3 A procedure is also described for determining the chronic toxicity of contaminants associated with whole sediments with the amphipod Leptocheirus plumulosus in laboratory exposures ( ; USEPA-USACE 20011.4 A salinity of 5 or 20 o/oo is recommended for routine application of 28-d test with L. plumulosus ( ; USEPA-USACE 2001 1.5 Future revisions of this standard may include additional annexes describing whole-sediment toxicity tests with other groups of estuarine or marine invertebrates (for example, information presented in Guide on sediment testing with polychaetes could be added as an annex to future revisions to this standard). Future editions to this standard may also include methods for conducting the toxicity tests in smaller chambers with less sediment (Ho et al. 2000 1.6 Procedures outlined in this standard are based primarily on procedures described in the USEPA (1994a 1.7 Additional sediment toxicity research and methods development are now in progress to (1) refine sediment spiking procedures, 1.8 Although standard procedures are described in of this standard for conducting chronic sediment tests with L. plumulosus, further investigation of certain issues could aid in the interpretation of test results. Some of these issues include further investigation to evaluate the relative toxicological sensitivity of the lethal and sublethal endpoints to a wide variety of chemicals spiked in sediment and to mixtures of chemicals in sediments from contamination gradients in the field (USEPA-USACE 2001 1.9 This standard outlines specific test methods for evaluating the toxicity of sediments with A. abdita, 1.10 General procedures described in this standard might be useful for conducting tests with other estuarine or marine organisms (for example, Corophium spp., Grandidierella japonica, Lepidactylus dytiscus, Streblospio benedicti), although modifications may be necessary. Results of tests, even those with the same species, using procedures different from those described in the test method may not be comparable and using these different procedures may alter bioavailability. Comparison of results obtained using modified versions of these procedures might provide useful information concerning new concepts and procedures for conducting sediment tests with aquatic organisms. If tests are conducted with procedures different from those described in this test method, additional tests are required to determine comparability of results. General procedures described in this test method might be useful for conducting tests with other aquatic organisms; however, modifications may be necessary.
1.11 Selection of Toxicity Testing Organisms:
1.11.1 The choice of a test organism has a major influence on the relevance, success, and interpretation of a test. Furthermore, no one organism is best suited for all sediments. The following criteria were considered when selecting test organisms to be described in this standard ( and Guide ). Ideally, a test organism should: ATL = Atlantic Coast, PAC = Pacific Coast, GOM= Gulf of Mexico
1.11.2 Of these criteria ( ), a database demonstrating relative sensitivity to contaminants, contact with sediment, ease of culture in the laboratory or availability for field-collection, ease of handling in the laboratory, tolerance to varying sediment physico-chemical characteristics, and confirmation with responses with natural benthic populations were the primary criteria used for selecting 1.11.3 The primary criterion used for selecting 1.11.4 An important consideration in the selection of specific species for test method development is the existence of information concerning relative sensitivity of the organisms both to single chemicals and complex mixtures. Several studies have evaluated the sensitivities of A. abdita, 1.11.5 Williams et al. (1986 () compared the sensitivity of the )1.11.6 Several studies have compared the sensitivity of combinations of the four amphipods to sediment contaminants. For example, there are several comparisons between 126.96.36.199 Word et al. (1989 () compared the sensitivity of )188.8.131.52 DeWitt et al. (1989 () compared the sensitivity of )184.108.40.206 Leptocheirus plumulosus was as sensitive as the freshwater amphipod Hyalella azteca to an artificially created gradient of sediment contamination when the latter was acclimated to oligohaline salinity (that is, 6 o/oo ; McGee et al., 1993 220.127.116.11 Hartwell et al. (2000 18.104.22.168 Ammonia is a naturally occurring compound in marine sediment that results from the degradation of organic debris. Interstitial ammonia concentrations in test sediment can range from <1 mg/L to in excess of 400 mg/L (Word et al., 1997 1.11.7 Limited comparative data is available for concurrent water-only exposures of all four species in single-chemical tests. Studies that do exist generally show that no one species is consistently the most sensitive.
22.214.171.124 The relative sensitivity of the four amphipod species to ammonia was determined in ten-d water only toxicity tests in order to aid interpretation of results of tests on sediments where this toxicant is present (USEPA 1994a 126.96.36.199 Cadmium chloride has been a common reference toxicant for all four species in 4-d exposures. DeWitt et al. (1992a 188.8.131.52 Relative species sensitivity frequently varies among contaminants; consequently, a battery of tests including organisms representing different trophic levels may be needed to assess sediment quality (Craig, 1984 (; Williams et al. 1986 )1.11.8 The sensitivity of an organism is related to route of exposure and biochemical response to contaminants. Sediment-dwelling organisms can receive exposure from three primary sources: interstitial water, sediment particles, and overlying water. Food type, feeding rate, assimilation efficiency, and clearance rate will control the dose of contaminants from sediment. Benthic invertebrates often selectively consume different particle sizes (Harkey et al. 1994 1.11.9 Despite the potential complexities in estimating the dose that an animal receives from sediment, the toxicity and bioaccumulation of many contaminants in sediment such as Kepone®, fluoranthene, organochlorines, and metals have been correlated with either the concentration of these chemicals in interstitial water or in the case of non-ionic organic chemicals, concentrations in sediment on an organic carbon normalized basis (Di Toro et al. 1990 1.11.10 The use of A. abdita, 184.108.40.206 Data from USEPA Office of Research and Development's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment program were examined to evaluate the relationship between survival of 220.127.116.11 Swartz et al. (1982 18.104.22.168 Sediment toxicity to amphipods in 10-d toxicity tests, field contamination, and field abundance of benthic amphipods were examined along a sediment contamination gradient of DDT (Swartz et al. 1994 22.214.171.124 As part of a comprehensive sediment quality assessment in Baltimore Harbor, MD, McGee et al. (1999 1.12 Chronic Sediment Methods with Leptocheirus plumulosus:
1.12.1 Most standard whole sediment toxicity tests have been developed to produce a lethality endpoint (survival/mortality) with potential for a sublethal endpoint (reburial) in some species (USEPA 1994a (, USEPA-USACE 2001 )(). Methods that measure sublethal effects have not been available or have not been routinely used to evaluate sediment toxicity in marine or estuarine sediments (Scott and Redmond, 1989 )1.12.2 An evaluation of the distribution of 1.13 Limitations—While some safety considerations are included in this standard, it is beyond the scope of this standard to encompass all safety requirements necessary to conduct sediment tests.
1.14 This standard is arranged as follows:
1.15 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.Specific hazard statements are given in Section .
|2. Referenced Documents|
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