Standard Test Method for Determining Threshold Stress Intensity Factor for Environment-Assisted Cracking of Metallic MaterialsTranslate name
STANDARD published on 1.10.2020
Designation standards: ASTM E1681-03(2020)
Publication date standards: 1.10.2020
The number of pages: 13
Approximate weight : 39 g (0.09 lbs)
Country: American technical standard
Category: Technical standards ASTM
aqueous agressive environment, constant-force test, elastic stress, environment-assisted cracking, metallic materials, threshold stress intensity factor,, ICS Number Code 91.080.10 (Metal structures)
|Significance and Use|
5.1 The parameters KEAC or KIEAC determined by this test method characterize the resistance to crack growth of a material with a sharp crack in specific environments under loading conditions in which the crack-tip plastic region is small compared with the crack depth and the uncracked ligament. The less restrictive thickness requirements of KEAC are intended for those conditions in which the results are a strong function of the thickness of the specimen and the application requires the testing of specimens with thickness representative of the application. Since the chemical and mechanical influences cannot be separated, in some material/environment combinations, the thickness must be treated as a variable. A KEAC or KIEAC value is believed to represent a characteristic measurement of environment-assisted cracking resistance in a precracked specimen exposed to an environment under sustained tensile loading. A KEAC or KIEAC value may be used to estimate the relationship between failure stress and defect size for a material under any service condition, where the combination of crack-like defects, sustained tensile loading and the same specific environment would be expected to occur. (Background information concerning the development of this test method can be found in Refs 5.1.1 The apparent KEAC or KIEAC of a material under a given set of chemical and electrochemical environmental conditions is a function of the test duration. It is difficult to furnish a rigorous and scientific proof for the existence of a threshold 5.1.2 The degree to which force deviations from static tensile stress will influence the apparent K5.1.3 In some material/environment combinations, the smaller the specimen, the lower the measured K22.214.171.124 The user may optionally determine and report a KEAC value or a KIEAC value. The specimen size validity requirements for a KEAC value meet the size requirements developed for Test Method to achieve predominately elastic behavior in the specimen. Test Method size requirements for compact specimens should be applied to both the compact specimen and the beam specimen. The specimen size validity requirements for a K5.1.4 Evidence of environment-assisted crack growth under conditions that do not meet the validity requirements of may provide an important indication of susceptibility to environmental cracking but cannot be used to determine a valid KEAC value (. )
5.1.5 Environment-assisted cracking is influenced by both mechanical and electrochemical driving forces. The latter can vary with crack depth, opening, or shape and may not be uniquely described by the fracture mechanics stress intensity factor. As an illustrative example, note the strong decrease reported in KISCC with decreasing crack size below 5 mm for steels in 3 % NaCl in water solution 5.1.6 Not all combinations of material and environment will result in environment-assisted cracking. In general, susceptibility to aqueous stress-corrosion cracking decreases with decreasing material strength level. When a material in a certain environment is not susceptible to environment-assisted cracking, it will not be possible to measure KEAC or KIEAC. This method can serve the following purposes:
126.96.36.199 In research and development, valid K188.8.131.52 In service evaluation, valid K184.108.40.206 In acceptance and quality control specifications, valid KEAC or KIEAC data can be used to establish criteria for material processing and component inspection.
5.1.7 Test results will be affected by force relaxation in constant displacement bolt-loaded compact specimens for some material/environment conditions. For relatively low strength material, non-agressive environments, or high test temperatures, force relaxation can occur independently from environment-assisted cracking. Significant force relaxation would make cracking results difficult to interpret. If force relaxation is suspected of influencing the data, the following trial specimen test is recommended. Test a trial specimen with all the test conditions of interest, except with no environment applied. Monitor the force on the sample using a bolt with an electronic load cell attached. Instrumented bolts of this type are commercially available. A force relaxation of more than 5 % after 24 h indicates that the constant displacement test method may not be suitable for these test conditions, and a constant force test should be considered.
5.1.8 Residual stresses can have an influence on environment-assisted cracking. The effect can be significant when test specimens are removed from material in which complete stress relief is impractical, such as weldments, as-heat-treated materials, complex wrought parts, and parts with intentionally produced residual stresses. Residual stresses superimposed on the applied stress can cause the local crack-tip stress-intensity factor to be different from that calculated from externally applied forces or displacements. Irregular crack growth during precracking, such as excessive crack front curvature or out-of-plane crack growth, often indicates that residual stresses will affect the subsequent environment-assisted crack growth behavior. Changes in the zero-force value of crack-mouth-opening displacement as a result of precrack growth is another indication that residual stresses will affect the subsequent environment-assisted crack growth.
5.1.9 For bolt loaded specimens, the user should realize that material being tested at an non-ambient temperature may have a different displacement-to-force ratio from that at ambient temperature, and also the bolt material may have a different coefficient of thermal expansion from that of the material being tested. Care should be taken to minimize these effects.
1.1 This test method covers the determination of the environment-assisted cracking threshold stress intensity factor parameters, KIEAC and KEAC, for metallic materials from constant-force testing of fatigue precracked beam or compact fracture specimens and from constant-displacement testing of fatigue precracked bolt-load compact fracture specimens.
1.2 This test method is applicable to environment-assisted cracking in aqueous or other aggressive environments.
1.3 Materials that can be tested by this test method are not limited by thickness or by strength as long as specimens are of sufficient thickness and planar size to meet the size requirements of this test method.
1.4 A range of specimen sizes with proportional planar dimensions is provided, but size may be variable and adjusted for yield strength and applied force. Specimen thickness is a variable independent of planar size.
1.5 Specimen configurations other than those contained in this test method may be used, provided that well-established stress intensity calibrations are available and that specimen dimensions are of sufficient size to meet the size requirements of this test method during testing.
1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
1.7 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.
|2. Referenced Documents|
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