Standard Reference Radiographs for Heavy-Walled (2 to 412 in. (50.8 to 114 mm)) Steel CastingsTranslate name
STANDARD published on 1.6.2020
Designation standards: ASTM E186-20
Publication date standards: 1.6.2020
The number of pages: 5
Approximate weight : 15 g (0.03 lbs)
Country: American technical standard
Category: Technical standards ASTM
discontinuity classification criterion, gamma-ray, reference radiographs, steel castings, X-ray,, ICS Number Code 77.040.20 (Non-destructive testing of metals), 77.140.80 (Iron and steel castings)
Reference Radiographs for E186 Heavy-Walled (2 to 4 1/2-in. (51 to 114-mm)) Steel Castings - Volume I + Active StandardSelected format:
Reference Radiographs for E186 Heavy-Walled (2 to 4 1/2-in. (51 to 114-mm)) Steel Castings - Volume II + Active StandardSelected format:
Reference Radiographs E186 for Heavy-Walled (2 to 4 1/2-in. (51 to 114-mm)) Steel Castings -Volume III + Active StandardSelected format:
Reference Radiographs for E186 Heavy-Walled (2 to 4 1/2-in. (51 to 114-mm)) Steel Castings; Vols. I, II & III + Active StandardsSelected format:
|Significance and Use|
4.1 Graded reference radiographs are intended to provide a guide enabling recognition of specific casting discontinuity types and relative severity levels that may be encountered during typical fabrication processes. Reference radiographs containing ungraded discontinuities are provided as a guide for recognition of a specific casting discontinuity type where severity levels may not be needed. These reference radiographs are intended as a basis from which manufacturers and purchasers may, by mutual agreement, select particular discontinuity classes to serve as standards representing minimum levels of acceptability (see Sections and ).
4.2 Reference radiographs represented by this standard may be used, as agreed upon in a purchaser supplier agreement, for energy levels, thicknesses, or both, outside the range of this standard when determined applicable for the casting service application. Severity levels of similar discontinuity categories and energy level range of or reference radiographs may alternatively be used, as determined appropriate for the casting service application, if so agreed upon in a purchaser supplier agreement (see Section and ).
4.3 Procedures for evaluation of production radiographs using applicable reference radiographs of this standard are prescribed in Section ; however, there may be manufacturing-purchaser issues involving specific casting service applications where it may be appropriate to modify or alter such requirements. Where such modifications may be appropriate for the casting application, all such changes shall be specifically called-out in the purchaser supplier agreement or contractual document. Section addresses purchaser supplier requisites where weld repairs to castings may be required.
4.4 Personnel utilizing reference radiographs to this standard shall be qualified and authorized to perform radiographic interpretation in accordance with a nationally or internationally recognized NDT personnel qualification practice or standard such as ANSI/ASNT-CP-189, SNT-TC-1A, NAS 410, ISO 9712, or a similar document and certified by the employer or certifying agency, as applicable. The practice or standard used and its applicable revision shall be identified in the contractual agreement between the using parties. A certified Level III shall be available to assist with interpreting specifications and product requirements as applied to the reference radiographs (if the Level III is the radiographic interpreter, this may be the same person).
1.1 These reference radiographs1.2 These reference radiographs consist of three separate volumes as follows:
1.2.1 Volume I: 1-MV X-rays and Iridium-192 (called “1 to 2–Mev X-rays” in previous editions)-Set of 28 plates (nominal 5 by 8 in. (127 by 203 mm) in a 15 by 17 in. (381 by 432 mm) ring binder).
1.2.2 Volume II: 2 to 4-MV X-rays and Cobalt-60 (called “gamma rays” in previous editions). This includes cobalt-60 or equivalent isotope radiation and from 2-MV up to 4-MV X-rays- Set of 28 plates (nominal 5 by 8 in.) in a 15 by 17 in. ring binder.
1.2.3 Volume III: 4-MV to 30-MV X-rays (called “10 to 24 Mev X-rays” in previous editions)- Set of 28 plates (nominal 5 by 8 in.) in a 15 by 17 in. ring binder.
1.2.4 Unless otherwise specified in a purchaser supplier agreement (see ), each volume is for comparison only with production radiographs produced with radiation energy levels within the thickness range covered by this standard. Each volume consists of three categories of graded discontinuities in increasing severity levels, and three categories of ungraded discontinuities. Reference radiographs containing ungraded discontinuities are provided as a guide for recognition of a specific casting discontinuity type where severity levels are not needed. Following is a list of discontinuity categories, types, and severity levels for the adjunct reference radiographs of this standard:
126.96.36.199 Category A—Gas porosity; severity levels 1 through 5.
188.8.131.52 Category B—Sand and slag inclusions; severity levels 1 through 5.
184.108.40.206 Category C—Shrinkage; three types:
(1) Ca—linear shrinkage—severity levels 1 through 5. (Called Type 1 in previous revisions.)
(2) Cb—feathery shrinkage—Severity levels 1 through 5. (Called Type 2 in previous revisions.)
(3) Cc—sponge shrinkage—Severity levels 1 through 5. (Called Type 3 in previous revisions.)
220.127.116.11 Category D—Crack; one illustration (D3 in pre-1972 documents).
18.104.22.168 Category E—Hot tear; one illustration in pre-1972 documents.
22.214.171.124 Category F—Insert; one illustration (EB3 in pre-1972 documents).
1.3 From time to time, there may be minor changes to the process for manufacturing of the reference radiograph adjunct materials. These changes could include changes in the films or processing chemicals used, changes in the dies or printing for the cardboard mats, etc.; however, in all cases, these changes are reviewed by the Illustration Monitoring Subcommittee and all reference radiographs are reviewed against a fixed prototype image to ensure that there are no changes to the acceptance level represented by the reference radiographs. Therefore, the adjunct reference radiographs remain valid for use with this standard regardless of the date of production or the revision level of the text standard.
1.4 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard.
1.5 These film reference radiographs are not intended to illustrate the types and degrees of discontinuities in steel castings when performing digital X-ray imaging. When performing digital X-ray imaging of these castings, refer to Digital Reference Images .
1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
1.7 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.
|2. Referenced Documents|
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